do not limit family size may have the same potential as those who because they lack knowledge of, or access to, means of limiting fan they are unable to do so, with the result that, because of excessiv size, their children are subject to more illness, receive less adequate n fail to grow well, and do not achieve their full potential for int development. These two alternatives are not mutually exclusive. The first may some parents, the second to others. As we have seen, there is evide most parents in the less developed countries would like to cont family size. Many of them have more living children than they w; have. For those parents to whom the second alternative applies, the of children they wanted might have been better cared for if the ones not want had not been born. If effective means were made availab! parents who want to control their family size to do so, a considerable tion might use these means, and be better parents as a consequence. Importance of Intelligence for Development. Intellectual capacity ability to manipulate abstractions that typify educated intelligence portant to economic development not only through the contribi skilled specialists, such as engineers, lawyers, physicians, archite teachers, but also because of the broad category of managerial ski! farm budgeting to central administration, that rest on intellectual and the greater ability of intelligent workers to adapt to change anc tion. ENVIRONMENT AND THE QUALITY OF LIFE* The assertion that rapid population growth adversely affects ITU ronment and the quality of life itself is rarely challenged. In develo we see the sky above the city veiled in thick smog, mining scars in n sides, dying lakes, rivers discolored from industrial effluents, billboa highways, conversations interrupted by overpowering noises from p planes, spots of scenic beauty marred by accumulations of empty c and transistor radio chatter—an incomplete list that increases year a in less developed areas—wildlife displaced by artificial lakes, new canals spreading schistosomiasis to previously uninfected areas, 1 should not be cultivated denuded and eroded, and native popula rooted. Although each encounter with these environmental insults i newed evidence that the quality of life is indeed deteriorating, a m questions must be asked about the role of population growth. *See Joseph L. Fisher and Neal Potter, "The Effects of Population Grow source Adequacy and Quality," in Vol. II of this study.he institutionalized children were 28 points lower than those of the children who had been cared for by foster parents.